SYLLABUS

Module

Course Description Hrs CO.No.
1.0 Introduction to plant tissue culture 10  
1.1 The concept of biotechnology, landmarks in biotechnology 1 1
1.2 Plant tissue culture – Principles and techniques. 1 1
1.3 Cellular totipotency, in vitro differentiation; dedifferentiation and redifferentiation 1 2
1.4 Callus induction organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. 1 2
1.5 Tissue culture medium; Basic components in tissue culture medium – Solid and liquid medium 1 2
1.6 Murashige and Skoog medium – composition and preparation 1 2
1.7 Aseptic techniques in tissue culture – sterilization – different methods sterilization of instruments and glass wares, medium and explants 1 2
1.8 Working principle of laminar air flow and autoclave 1 2
1.9 Preparation of explants – surface sterilization, inoculation and incubation, sub culturing. 1 2
1.10 Establishment of axenic cultures production of suspension culture. 1 2
2.0 Applications of Plant Tissue Culture 10  
2.1 Concept of micropropagation; advantages and disadvantages, different methods – axillary bud proliferation, direct and indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis 1 3
2.2 Different phases of micropropagation – hardening, transplantation and field evaluation. 1 3
2.3 Applications of tissue culture: Micropropagation of elite plants, Synthetic seed production 2 3, 4
2.4 Meristem culture for virus free plants 2 3, 4
2.5 Somaclonal variation and in vitro mutagenesis, Embryo rescue – embryo culture 1 3, 4
2.6 In vitro production of haploids – anther and pollen culture; in vitro fertilization 1 3, 4
2.7 Protoplast isolation culture and regeneration 1 3, 4
2.8 Somatic cell hybridization 1 3, 4
2.9 In vitro secondary metabolite production –– cell immobilization, bio reactors, hairy root culture 1 3, 4
2.10 Cryopreservation 1 3, 4
3.0 Genetic Engineering in Plants 18  
3.1 Plant transformation: Genetic engineering: Vectors for plant transformation 1 5
3.2 Different types of Agrobacterium based vectors 1 5
3.3 Methods of plant transformation; Gene cloning, methods of transformation – electroporation, particle bombardment and Agrobacterium mediated 2 5
3.4 Target traits and transgenic crops; Genetic and molecular analyses of transgenics 2 5
3.5 Molecular Markers: Role of molecular markers in characterization of transgenic crops, fingerprinting of cultivars 2 5
3.6 GMO: Achievements and issues 2 5
3.7 Future thrusts in horticultural biotechnology: Molecular approaches to control ethylene response, improving shelf life, improving resistance for environmental stress: virus and herbicide resistant crops 2 5
3.8 Edible vaccines. 2 5
3.9 Biotechnology and floriculture: Achievements of biotechnology in flower crops: approaches to improve flower development 1 5
3.10 Bio-pigments: Extraction of biocolours, uses in food and textile industries 1 5
3.11 Examples of transgenic plants produced successfully: Bt crops, golden rice, Flavr Savr Tomato 1 5
4.0 Concerns over modern plant biotechnology and Intellectual property Rights (IPR) 16  
4.1 Biosafety and risk assessment issues: General principles for the laboratory and environmental biosafety; Health aspects; toxicology, allergenicity, antibiotic resistance 2 6
4.2 Ecological aspects of GMOs and impact on biodiversity: Sources of gene escape, tolerance of target organisms, creation of super weeds/super viruses, etc.; Monitoring strategies 2 6
4.3 Cross border movement of germplasm; Risk management issues – containment. 2 6
4.4 Biosafety Regulatory framework: National biosafety policies and law, The Cartagena protocol on biosafety, WTO and other international agreements related to biosafety 2 6
4.5 Intellectual property Rights (IPR): Intellectual properties, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, patents, geographical indications, etc 2 6
4.6 Indian patent act and amendments, patent filing 2 6
4.7 Protection of plant variety and farmers right act; Convention on biological diversity 2 6
4.8 Implications of intellectual property rights on the commercialization of biotechnology products. 2 6

References

 Razdan M.K. Introduction to Plant Tissue Culture. : 376 pages, Science Publishers Inc 2nd edition (2003), ISBN: 1578082374.

 Keshavachandran R & Peter KV. 2008. Plant Biotechnology: Methods in Tissue Culture and Gene Transfer. Orient & Longman (Universal Press)

 Singh BD. 2007. Biotechnology: Expanding Horizon. Kalyani Publications.