Syllabus

Module 

Course Description Hrs CO.No.  
1.0 Genetic material: Structural and Functional aspects 22  
1.1 Introduction to heredity and the genetic material, characteristics of genetic material, the molecular basis of heredity 1 1
1.2 Early studies of DNA works of F.Miescher, Albert Kossel, Phoebus Levene, Erwin Chargaf] DNA as the source of genetic information. 1 2
1.3 The discovery of transforming principle [Grifith‟s experiment], Identification of the transforming principle [Avery, MacLeod and McCarty‟s experiment] 1 1,2
1.4 Experiment to prove DNA as the genetic material (Hershey and Chase experiment] ,Discovery of RNA as the genetic material in some viruses [Heinz Fraenkal-Conrat‟s experiment] 1 1,2
1.5 Watson and Crick‟s discovery of the structure of DNA double helix 1 1
1.6 Primary structure of DNA- structure of nucleosides and nucleotides, phosphodiester bond and structure of a polynucleotide. Secondary Structure of DNA : DNA double helix, different secondary structures [A, B and Z], Tertiary structure, supercoiling and circular DNA 3 1
1.7 Suspected forms of DNA replication: conservative, dispersive and semiconservative. Meselson and Stahl„s experiment to prove semiconservative mode of replication 1 3
1.8 Requirements for Replication; origin, replication fork, replisome and direction of replication, general mechanism of replication 2 3
1.9 Prokaryotic replication with E.coli as model system 1 3
1.10 Eukaryotic DNA replication 1 3
1.11 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases 1 3
1.12 Telomere replication-DNA synthesis at the ends of chromosomes, telomerases. 1 3
1.13 Modes of replication: theta replication, rolling circle replication, linear eukaryotic replication. 1 3
1.14  Recombination: Holiday model, enzymes required for recombination 1 4
1.15 Mutations: causes of mutations and types of mutations 1 5
1.16 Changes in chromosome number and structure, genomic  instability 2 5
2.0  Gene expression and Regulation 21  
2.1 Structure and types of RNA 1 7
2.2 Requirements for transcription, Transcription unit, Transcription factors, promoters, terminators 1 8
2.3 Julius Marmur‟s experiment to prove that only one strand of DNA acts as template during transcription 1 8
2.4 Bacterial and Eukaryotic RNA polymerases 1 8
2.5 Bacterial Transcription 1 8
2.6 Transcription in eukaryotes 1 8
2.7 Messenger RNA, Discovery of mRNA- Brenner, Jacob and Meselson‟s experiment 1 8
2.8 Split gene concept- exons and introns 1 9
2.9 Post transcriptional modifications ( or Pre-mRNA Processing)-3‟ and 5‟ modifications (addition of 5„cap and 3 „polyA tail), RNA splicing, spliceosome, mRNA editing, guide mRNA mediated editing 2 9
2.10 Structure of tRNA, modified bases in tRNA, clover leaf model of tRNA, tRNA genes structure and processing 1 9
2.11 rRNA gene structure and processing 1 9
2.12 Genetic code, characteristics of genetic code 1 10
2.13 Nirenberg and Mathaei experiment, Nirenberg and Leder experiment & contributions of H.G. Khorana in connection with the breaking of the genetic code 1 10
2.14 The process of translation, polyribosomes, RNA-RNA interaction in translation 1 11
2.15 mRNA surveillance; staled ribosome, translation inhibitors 1 11
2.16 Gene regulation in bacterial cells; operon concept, negative and positive control. 1 12
2.17 Inducible and repressible operons, lac operon and trp operon of E.coli, Catabolite repression, transcriptional attenuation 2 12
2.18 Gene regulations in eukaryotes: chromatin structure, DNase I hypersensitivity sites , histone acetylation, DNA methylation, Alternative splicing of mRNA & RNA silencing. 2 12
3.0 Cancer genetics 2  
3.1 Nature and causes of cancer, cancer as a genetic disease, genetic changes that contribute to cancer 1 13
3.2 Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, Genes that promote vascularisation and the spread of tumors. 1 13
4.0 Introduction to molecular evolution 9  
4.1 Neo-Darwinism or Synthetic theory of evolution: Integrating Darwinism with Mendelian genetics 1 14
4.2 Factors driving evolution: Gene mutations, Non-random mating, Gene flow, Genetic Drift, Natural selection 1 14
4.3 Reproductive isolation and speciation 1 14
4.4 Variationand evolution, hybridization and evolution, polyploidy and evolution 1 14
4.5 Molecular evolution: concepts of neutral evolution 1 15
4.6 Molecular divergence and molecular clocks 1 15
4.7 Molecular phylogeny : classification and identification; protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; gene duplication and divergence. 1 15
4.8 Genome complexity,gene duplications and transposons 1 15
4.9 Genome evolution, stages in primate evolution 1 15

Text Books for Reference

 Watson, J.D. (2007).Molecular Biology of the gene. Pearson, 7 th edn. ISBN:978- 0321762436

 Karp, G. (2013). Cell and Molecular Biology. Wiley,7th edn. ISBN: 978-1118301791

 Futuyma, D.J.(2013). Evolution. Oxford, 3 rd edn. ISBN:978-1605356051

 

Text Books for Enrichment

 Weaver, R.F. (2011), Molecular Biology, McGrawHill, 5 th edn. ISBN: 978-0073525327

 Brown, T. (2017), Genomes, Garland Science, 4 th edn. ISBN:978-0815345084