( Any 3 courses to be opted from the following courses )
AP4E01 FATS, OILS AND WAXES
Credit: 4 Contact Lecture Hours: 90
Unit 1:Extraction of oils and fats (9 Hrs)
Mechanical pretreatment and heat treatment of oil bearing materials. Rendering of animal fats and cooking of oil seeds. Mechanical expression of oils. Solvent extraction-theory and practice, type of extractors, solvent recovery, alternative solvents for extraction, super critical fluid extraction of oils and fats. Newer methods in extraction of oils.
Unit 2: Commercially important oils and fats (18 Hrs)
Study of the sources, composition, characteristics and utilization of commercially important oils and fats-butter, tallow, lard, coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil, cocoa butter, olive oil, cotton seed oil, rice bran oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, tung oil, linseed oil, mustard oil, castor oil, hydnocarpus oil, marine oils.
Unit 3: Oils and fats as food materials (9 Hrs)
Cooking oil, salad oil, and salad dressings. Quality evaluation of cooking oils and salad oils. Margarine and Shortenings
Essential fatty acids: ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and their dietary sources, significance to human nutrition and health.
Fat-related diseases: atherosclerosis, arthritis. Nutritional significance of EFA, HDL, LDL and VLDL.
Unit 4: Glyceride structure (9 Hrs)
Glyceride composition of natural fats. Methods of investigation of glycerides. Theories of glyceride structure
Unit 5: Analysis of fats and oils (18 Hrs)
Test methods for physical properties: melting point, softening point, slipping point, titer, congeal point, flow test, cloud test, consistency test, penetration method, liquid and solid fatty acid determination, solid fat index, specific gravity, refractive index, viscosity, color, odor.
Test methods for chemical properties: Iodine value, thiocyanogen number, saponification value, acid value and free fatty acid, oxirane oxygen, hydroxyl and
acetyl value, peroxide value, Reichert-Meissel value, Polenski value and Kirschner value, diene value. Estimation of poly unsaturated fatty acids-Kries test, thiobarbituric acid test
Adulteration of oils fats – detection of adulteration
Unit 6: Nonglyceride constituents of fats and oils (9 Hrs)
Occurrence, chemistry and function of carotenes, vitamins, tocopheols, steroids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, antioxidants. Constituents contributing flavor and odor.
Unit 7: Waxes and Fatty Alcohols (9 Hrs)
Occurrence, classification, properties and composition of waxes. Synthetic waxes. Analysis and utilization of waxes.
Naturally occurring fatty alcohols-production, uses and applications. Alcohol ethers.
Unit 8: Rancidity in oils, fats and oil bearing substances (9 Hrs)
Concept of autoxidation, theories of autoxidation, tests for rancidity, stability of oils, induction period, Pro oxidants and antioxidants, drying, semidrying and nondrying oils.
D. Swern, Bailey’s Industrial oil and Fat Products, Vol. I-II, 4th Edn., John Wiley & Sons, 1982.
T.H. Aplewhite, Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Vol.III, 4th Edn., John Wiley-Interscience,1985
F.D. Gunstone, An introduction to Chemistry and Biochemistry of Fatty acids and their Glycerides, Chapman and Hall, 1968.
T.P. Hilditch, P.N. Williams, The Chemical Constitution of Natural Fats, 4th Edn., John Wiley & Sons, 1964
H.A. Boekenoogen, Analysis and Characterization of Oils, Fats and Fat Products, Vol.I, Interscience, 1964.
P. Tooley, Chemistry in Industry-Fats, Oils and Waxes, John Murray, 1971.
W.W. Christie, Lipid Analysis, 3rd Edn., Oily Press, 2003.
AP4E02 INDUSTRIAL OIL AND FAT PRODUCTS
Credit: 4 Contact Lecture Hours: 90
Unit 1:Processing of Oils and Fats (9 Hrs)
Refining, bleaching, deodorization, fractionation, winterization, stabilization, solidification, homogenization, emulsification and dewaxing.
Unit 2: Hydrogenation of Oils (9 Hrs)
Catalytic hydrogenation: chemistry of hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, influence of various factors in hydrogenation, mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrogenation reactions, hydrogenation catalysts-theory of catalysis, materials and apparatus, new developments in plants and processes for hydrogenation.
Industrial processes of: –
Manufacture of catalyst for hydrogenation, hydrogen production and purification.
Hydrogenation of vegetable and marine oils-manufacture of vanaspati.
Reduction of long chain fatty acids.
Unit 3: Fat Splitting and Esterification (18 Hrs)
Fat splitting: Twitchell process, low pressure splitting with catalysts, medium pressure autoclave splitting with catalyst, continuous uncatalyzed high pressure counter current splitting, enzymatic splitting, recovery of glycerine from fat splitting process and spent lye, different grades of glycerine, chemistry and synthesis of glycerine, uses of glycerine, glycerine substitutes.
Esterification: mechanism of esterification and ester hydrolysis, esterification of fatty acids with glycerol and other alcohols, inter esterification, acidolysis, alcoholysis, glycolysis, glycerolysis, transesterification and its mechanism, applications of esterification and inter esterification.
Unit 4: Theories of Surface Action (9 Hrs)
Applications of surface active agents, liquid-gas interfaces, liquid-liquid interfaces, liquid-solid interfaces, boundaries between three phases, foaming and defoaming, emulsification, wetting of solids, adsorption on solid surfaces, detergency.
Unit 5: Soaps (9 Hrs)
Soap manufacture: raw materials, characteristics of cold process, semi boiled process and boiled process, additives of soap, detergent action of soap, influence of fatty acid composition of the oil on properties of soap, manufacture of soap for different purposes-laundry soaps, toilet soaps, liquid soaps, transparent soaps, baby soaps, shaving soaps, medicated soaps, textile soaps, naphtha soaps, marine soaps.
Chemical analysis of soaps- T.F.M value of soaps.
Unit 6: Synthetic Detergents (9 Hrs)
Detailed study of the anionic, cationic, amphoteric and nonionic detergents used in modern industries and for household purposes-their chemistry, manufacture and applications. Agglomeration.
Merits and demerits of syndets over soaps, biodegradability of detergents
Role of surfactants in synthesis of nano particles, enzyme detergents, Green detergents, compact detergents.
Unit 7: Paints, Varnishes and Lacquers (9 Hrs)
Paints as protective coatings, paints and enamels, materials for paint manufacture, oils used-unmodified oils and their pretreatment, modified drying oils, resins and copolymers-natural resins, phenolic resins, alkyd resins, urethane resins, epoxy resins.
Driers, thinners, pigments and miscellaneous ingredients, mechanism of polymerization and drying of oils
Testing and evaluation of paints: density, viscosity, brushability, spraying properties, covering power, opacity, drying time, volatile content, flash point, optical and mechanical properties of dry films.
Varnishes and lacquers: composition and uses, oleoresinous varnishes, defects in varnish films.
Control of volatile organic emissions in paint industry.
Unit 8: Miscellaneous Oil and Fat Products (9 Hrs)
Sulphonated oils-sulphonation process, applications of sulphonated oils.
Linoleum, oiled fabrics, lubricants and plasticizers, illuminants and fuels.
Unit 9: Instrumental Analysis of Oil and Fat Products (9 Hrs)
Applications of a) Refractometry b) Dilatometry c) Polarography d) X-ray diffraction.
D. Swern, Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Vol. I and II, 4th Edn., John Wiley, 1982.
T.H. Applewhite, Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Vol.III, 4th Edn., John Wiley, 1985.
E.S. Pattison, Fatty acids and their Industrial Applications, Marcel Dekker, 1968.
A.J.C. Andersen, Refining for Oils and Fats for Edible Purposes, Pergamon Press, 1962.
C.R. Martens, Emulsion and Water soluble Paints and Coatings, Reinhold, 1964.
L.I. Osipow, Surface Chemistry-Theory and Industrial Applications, R E Krieger, 1972.
M. Ash, I. Ash, Formulary of Detergents and Other Cleaning Agents, Chemical Publishing, 1999.
W.M. Morgans, Outlines of Paint Technology, Wiley, 1990.
AP4E03 CHEMISTRY OF AROMATICS AND ESSENTIAL OIL CONSTITUENTS
Credit: 4 Contact Lecture Hours: 90
Unit 1: Spices (18 Hrs)
Study of the sources, production, nature, chemical constituents and uses of common spices and condiments such as Cardamom, Pepper, Clove, Nutmeg, Mace, Cinnamon, Ginger, Turmeric, Celery, Fennel, Fenugreek, Coriander, Garlic, Vanilla, Saffron, Allspices, Curry leafs, Mint and Mustard.
Unit 2: Spice Oils and Oleoresins (9 Hrs)
Methods of production, chemistry of the constituents and uses of the following: Pepper, Ginger, Turmeric.
Unit 3: Production and Chemistry of Aromatics and Essential Oil Constituents (36 hrs)
Natural Source, production and chemistry of aromatics and essential oil constituents such as:
Alcohols: Benzyl alcohol, Phenylethyl alcohol, Cinnamyl alcohol.
Aldehyde: Benzaldehyde, Phenylacetaldehyde, Cinnamic aldehyde, Salicylaldehydes, Anisaldehyde, Vanillin, Piperonal.
Phenols: Thymol, Carvacrol, Eugenol, Isoeugenol, Methyleugenol.
Acids and Esters: Benzoic acid, Cinammic acid, Salicylic acid, Anisic acid, Anthranilic acid, Phenylacetic acid, Benzylacetate, Benzylbenzoate, Cinnamylacetate, Geranylacetate, Linalylacetate, Menthylacetate, Amylacetate.
Miscellaneous Compounds- Coumarin, Cineoles, Anethole, Ascaridole, Indole, Muscone, Civetone, Exalton, Artificial Musk.
Unit 4: Flavour (9 Hrs)
Concept of flavor, difference between perfumes and flavour. Flavour Characterisation.
Sensory analysis-descriptive and discriminent Sensory Analysis.
Flavour of Coffee, Tea, Cocoa, Onion and Garlic. Synthetic ingredients of food flavourings.
Unit 5: Perfumes (18 Hrs)
Odour, Odorants, Olfaction, Classification of odour. General Physiology of Olfaction.
Perfume Raw materials-Terpeneles and Sesqueterenles oils, Concrete oils, Absolute oils, Isolates from essential oils, Tincture, Balsams and Resins.
Source and Chemical nature of commercially important Gums, Balsams and Resins.
Perfume Technology-blending and formulation of perfumes. Aerosol Spray Perfumes.
F. Rosengarten, The Book of Spices, Jove, 1981.
J.W. Parry, Hand Book of Spices, Chemical Publishing, 1969
J.S. Pruthi, Spices and Condiments Chemistry, Microbiology and Technology, Academic Press, 1980.
E. Guenther, The Essential Oils, Vol I-VI, Van Nostrand, 1972.
M. Billot, F.V. Wells, Perfumery Technology: Art, Science and Industry, E. Horwood, 1975.
E.T. Theimer, Fragrance Chemistry: the Science of the Sense of Smell, Academic Press, 1982.
L. Appell, Cosmetics, Fragrances and Flavours, Novox, 1982.
N. Groom, The Perfume Handbook, Chapman and Hall, 1992.
L.H. Meyer, Food Chemistry, Reinhold, 1960.
AP4E04 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
Credit: 4 Contact Lecture Hours: 90
Unit 1: Instrumental Methods (36 Hrs)
Electrical and nonelectrical data domains-transducers and sensors, detectors, examples for piezoelectric, pyroelectric, photoelectric, pneumatic and thermal transducers. Criteria for selecting instrumental methods-precision, sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limits.
Signals and noise: sources of noise, S/N ratio, methods of enhancing S/N ratio-hardware and software methods.
Electronics: transistors, FET, MOSFET, ICs, OPAMs. Application of OPAM in amplification and measurement of transducer signals.
UV-Vis spectroscopic instrumentation: types of optical instruments, components of optical instruments-sources, monochromators, detectors. Sample preparations. Instrumental noises. Applications in qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Molecular fluorescence and fluorometers: photoluminiscence and concentration-electron transition in photoluminescence, factors affecting fluorescence, instrumentation details. Fluorometric standards and reagents. Introduction to photoacoustic spectroscopy.
IR spectrometry: instrumentation designs-various types of sources, monochromators, sample cell considerations, different methods of sample preparations, detectors of IR-NDIR instruments. FTIR instruments. Mid IR absorption spectrometry. Determination of path length. Application in qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Raman Spectrometric Instrumentation: sources, sample illumination systems. Application of Raman Spectroscopy in inorganic, organic, biological and quantitative analysis.
NMR Spectrometry-magnets, shim coils, sample spinning, sample probes (1H, 13C, 32P). Principle of MRI.
Unit 2: Sampling (18 hrs)
The basis and procedure of sampling, sampling statistics, sampling and the physical state, crushing and grinding, the gross sampling, size of the gross sample, sampling liquids, gas and solids (metals and alloys), preparation of a laboratory sample, moisture in samples-essential and non essential water, absorbed and occluded water, determination of water (direct and indirect methods).
Decomposition and dissolution, source of error, reagents for decomposition and dissolution like HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4, HF, microwave decompositions, combustion methods, use of fluxes like Na2CO3, Na2O2, KNO3, NaOH, K2S2O7, B2O3 and lithium metaborate. Elimination of interference from samples-separation by precipitation, electrolytic precipitation, extraction and ion exchange. Distribution ratio and completeness of multiple extractions. Types of extraction procedures.
Unit 3: Applied Analysis (9 hrs)
Analytical procedures involved in environmental monitoring. Water quality-BOD, COD, DO, nitrite, nitrate, iron, fluoride.
Soil-moisture, salinity, colloids, cation and anion exchange capacity.
Air pollution monitoring sampling, collection of air pollutants-SO2, NO2, NH3, O3 and SPM.
Analysis of metals, alloys and minerals. Analysis of brass and steel. Analysis of limestone. Corrosion analysis.
Unit 4: Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electro-chromatography (9 Hrs)
Capillary electrophoresis-migrationratesand plate heights,instrumentation,
sample introduction, detection(indirect)-fluorescence, absorbance,
electrochemical,mass spectrometric, applications. Capillary gel electrophoresis.
Capillary isotachophoresis. Isoelectric focusing.
Capillary electro chromatography-packed columns. Micellar electro kinetic chromatography.
Unit 5: Process instrumentation (9 Hrs)
Automatic and automated systems, flow injection systems, special requirements of process instruments, sampling problems, typical examples of C, H and N analysers.
Unit 6: Aquatic Resources (9 Hrs)
Aquatic resources: renewable and non renewable resources, estimation, primary productivity and factors affecting it, regional variations.
Desalination: principles and applications of desalination-distillation, solar evaporation, freezing, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, ion exchange and hydrate formation methods. Relative advantages and limitations. Scale formation and its prevention in distillation process.
Non-renewable resources: inorganic chemicals from the sea-extraction and recovery of chemicals, salt from solar evaporation.
J.M. Mermet, M. Otto, R. Kellner, Analytical Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, 2004.
D.A. Skoog, D.M. West, F.J. Holler, S.R. Crouch, Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 8th Edn., Saunders College Pub., 2007.
R.D. Brownn, Introduction to Instrumental Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1958.
H.H. Willard, L.L. Merritt, J.A. Dean, Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Van Nostrand, 1974.
G.D. Christian, J.E. O’Reilly, Instrumental Analysis, Allyn & Bacon, 1986.
J.H. Kennedy, Analytical Chemistry: Principles, Saunders College Pub., 1990.
J.G. Dick, Analytical Chemistry, R.E. Krieger, 1978.
E.D. Howe, Fundamentals of Water Desalination, Marcel Dekker, 1974.
H.G. Heitmann, Saline Water Processing, VCH, 1990.
SEMESTERS 3 AND 4
AP4P04 INDUSTRIAL OIL AND FAT PRODUCTS PRACTICAL
Credit: 3 Contact Lab Hours: 54+54=108
I. Preparation of samples of refined and bleached oils.
Analysis of vanaspati:
Determination of the physical and chemical constants of hydrogenated fats.
Estimation of residual nickel catalyst in hydrogenated fats.
Estimation of Vitamin A and Vitamin E content of vanaspati.
Determination of isooleic acids in hydrogenated fats.
Detection of animal fats in vanaspati.
Estimation of nickel in catalyst mixture and spent catalyst.
Complete analysis of washing soaps, toilet soaps and transparent soaps: moisture, alcohol soluble and insoluble’s, free caustic alkali, combined alkali, anhydrous soap, titer, mean molecular weight and Iodine value of total fatty acids derived from soaps.
TFM value of toilet soaps.
Estimation of glycerine content of toilet soaps and transparent soaps.
Test for detection of rosin in soaps. Estimation of rosin in soaps.
Analysis of soap stock-acidulated and neutral oil.
Analysis of spent lye: Estimation of glycerine, total alkali and sodium chloride in spent lye.
IV. Glycerine analysis: Analysis of glycerine for specifications-glycerine content, ash, total residue, acidity/alkalinity.
Analysis of detergent powders:
Preparation of different types of soap-washing soap, toilet soap, transparent soap, liquid soap, shaving soap.
Preparation detergent powder, shampoo, vanishing cream.
F. Shahidi, Bailey’s Industial Oil and Fat Products, 6th Edn., John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
I. Ash, M. Ash, Formulary of Detergents and other Cleaning Agents, Chemical Publishing, 1999
H. Butler, Poucher’s Perfumes, Cosmestics and Soaps, 10th Edn., Springer, 2000.
AP4P05 ESSENTIAL OILS AND AROMATICS PRACTICAL
Credit: 3 Contact Lab Hours: 54+54=108
Experiments to illustrate the preparation of essential oils by (a) steam distillation
solvent extraction (c) effleurage.
Assay of essential oils and perfumery materials: Determination of specific gravity, refractive index, optical rotation, boiling point and boiling range. Fractionation and solubility. Estimation of essential oil constituents such as alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols and others.
01. Estimation of acids in essential oils.
02. Geraniol in palmarosa oil.
03. Citronellol in citronella oil.
04. Linalool in bergamot or lavender oil.
05. Citral in lemongrass oil.
06. Citronellal in citronella oil.
07. Cinnamic aldehyde in cinnamon oil.
08. Methyl salicylate in wintergreen oil.
Geranyl acetate in palmarosa oil.
Camphor in camphor oil.
Cineole in eucalyptus oil.
Eugenol in clove oil.
Estimation of vanillin.
Estimation of aldehydes and ketone components in a mixtrure. III. Estimation of essential oil content in oil bearing materials.
IV. Detection and estimation of common adulterants such as alcohol, rosin, fatty oil and mineral oil in essential oils.
V. Determination of ethyl alcohol content in tinctures and essences.
VI. Preparation of some typical isolates from essential oils. 01. Citral from lemongrass oil.
02. Geraniol from palmarosa oil.
03. Santalols from sandalwood oil.
04. Cineol from eucalyptus oil.
05. Linalool from bergamot oil.
06. Cinnamic aldehyde from cinnamon oil.
07. Eugenol from clove oil.
VII. Synthesis of aromatics and perfumery compounds:
05. Methl cinnamate.
06. Methyl anthranilate.
07. Benzyl acetate.
08. Amyl benzoate.
E. Guenther, The Essential Oils-Vol.1, Jepson Press, 2007.
W.A. Poucher, Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps, 9th Edn., Springer, 1993.
M. Billot, F.V. Wells, Perfumery Technology: Art, Science, Industry, E. Horwood, 1975.
J.S. Pruthi, Spices and Condiments: Chemistry, Microbiology, Technology, Academic Press, 1980.
R.F. Venn, Principles and Practice of Bioanalysis, Taylor& Francis, 2007.
G. Reineccius, Flavour Chemistry and Technology, 2nd Edn., 2005.
AP4P06 FIXED OILS AND FATS PRACTICAL
Credit: 3 Contact Lab Hours: 72+72=144
I. Determination of the physical and chemical constants of common oils and fats.
Moisture, Specific gravity, Refractive index, Acid value and free fatty acid, Saponification value, Iodine value, Non-saponifiable matter, Acetyl and hydroxyl value, Reichert Meissl value, Polenske and Kirschner value, peroxide value and color measurement of the following:
07.Soya bean oil.
08.Rice bran oil.
11.Shark liver oil.
Kauffmann’s Thiocyanogen value-Determination of linoleic and linolenic acids in fats.
IV. Special test for oils: Stoke’s test and Bailey’s test for Castor oil, test for detection of Peanut oil, color test for cotton seed oil and sesame oil.
Detection of common adulterants in oils and fats. Detection of vanaspati in butter and ghee.
VI. Assessment of the quality of fats-Preparation of the total fatty acids and determination if its iodine value, titer and mean molecular weight.
VII. Separation and estimation of saturated acid in mixtures and in oils-Bertram method and lead salt method.
VIII. Investigation of the fatty acid composition of the oils and fats, Preparation of total fatty acids, Esterification-Ester fractionation by chromatographic method-Separation and analysis of fatty acids.
IX. Analysis of oil cake: Estimation of (a) residual oil and (b) protein nitrogen.
Estimation of total phospholipids in oils containing nonglyceride constituents. Estimation of phosphorous in lecithin.
XI. Colorimetric estimation of cholesterol in fats.
XII. Preparation based on oils and fats: Preparations involving epoxidation, hydroxylation, bromination and chain scission of fatty acids. Isolation of individual fatty acids from oils.
Erythro-9, 10-dihydroxystearic acid.
threo-9, 10-dihydroxystearic acid.
Isolation of palmitic acid from palm oil.
Isolation of erucic acid from mustard oil.
XIII. Preparation of rice bran oil by solvent extraction method.
V.C. Mehlenbacher, Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil Chemists Society Vol.1, 3rd Edn., The Society, 1954.
H.A. Boekenoogen, Analysis and Characterization of Oils, Fats and Fat Products, Interscience, 1954.
L.V. Cocks, C.V. Rede, Laboratory Hand Book for Oil and Fat Analysis, Academic Press, 1966.
F.D. Gunstone, An Introduction to the Chemistry and Biochemistry of Fatty Acids and their Glycerides, Chapman and Hall, 1968.
F.D. Gunstone, Topics in Lipid Chemistry, Logos, 1970.