Course Description

Hrs CO.No.
1.1 Microscopy    
1.1.1 Microscopy: compound microscope, bright field and dark field microscope 1 1
1.1.2 Phase contrast microscope 1 1
1.1.3 Fluroscent microscope, confocal microscope 1 1
1.1.4 Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope 1 1
1.1.5 Scanning acoustic microscope   1
1.1.6 Preparing smears for microscopy 1 1
1.1.7 Staining, differential staining, Gram staining 1 1
1.1.8 Acid fast staining 1 1
1.1.9 Special staining, negative staining for capsules 1 1
1.1.10 Endospore staining, flagella staining 1 1
1.2 Bacterial systematic and Nutritional requirement 13  
1.2.1 Morphology of bacteria: size range of bacterial cells, Shape and arrangement of bacterial cells 1 2
1.2.2 Methods to classify bacteria: biochemical methods, serological testing, phage typing, fatty acid profiling using FAME, ribotyping and rRNA sequencing 1 4
1.2.3 Bergey‟s manuel, examples and characteristics (brief account) of gram negative bacteria, gram positive bacteria, bacteria with unusual properties, gram positive filamentous bacteria with complex morphology 1 4
1.2.4 Ultrastructure of bacteria 1 2
1.2.5 Culturing Bacteria: Nutritional requirements, nutritional types of bacteria: phototrophs, chemotrophs, autotrophs, heterotrophs, obligate parasites 1 3
1.2.6 Bacteriological Media: selective media, differential media, media for characterization of bacteria, Solid and semi solid media, broth 1 3
1.2.7 Physical conditions required for growth: temperature, pH, oxygen, cultivation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, candle jar, anaerobic jar, CO 2 generating packet, CO2 incubator 1 3
1.2.8 Batch culture, continuous culture, enrichment culture, pure culture, methods to obtain pure culture: streak plate method, serial dilution method, use of special media 1 3
1.2.9 Preserving bacterial culture: Glycerol stock, deep freezing, lyophilisation 1 3
1.2.10 Growth of bacterial cultures: binary fission, budding (eg. Pseudomonas acidophila), fragmentation (eg. Nocardia) 1 5
1.2.11 Bacterial growth kinetics, Growth curve,different phases 1 5
1.2.12 Measurement of bacterial growth: direct microscopic count, serial dilution, pour plate, spread plate and plate count, membrane filter count, turbidometric method, dry weight method, most probable number method 1 5
1.2.13 Quorum sensing 1 3
2.1 Control of microbial growth: Sterilization, methods of sterilization Heat treatment: thermal death point, thermal death time, moist heat and dry heat, autoclave, design, operation, pasteurization, flaming, hot air oven, low temperature treatment 3 3
2.2 Filtration: membrane filters. Chemical methods: phenols, bisphenols, biguanides, halogens, alcohols, compounds of heavy metals, soaps and detergents, acid anionic sanitizers, quaternary ammonium compounds, chemical preservatives; SO2, sodium benzoate, sorbic acid, calcium propionate, sodium nitrate 2 3
2.3 Antimicrobial drugs: drugs inhibiting cell wall synthesis, drugs inhibiting protein synthesis, drugs causing injury to plasma membrane, drugs inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis, drugs inhibiting the synthesis of essential metabolites, penicillins, penicillinase resistant penicillin, penicillin and β -lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins, bacitracin, vancomycin, tetracyclines, sulfonamides 1 3
2.4 Antifungal Drugs: agents affecting fungal sterols, agents affecting fungal cell walls, agents inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis 1 3
2.5 Antiviral Drugs: nucleoside and nucleotide analogues, enzyme inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitor, protease inhibitors, interferons 1 3
2.6 Determination of the efficiency of a drug: disk diffusion assay 1 6
2.7 Broth dilution test and determination of minimal inhibitory concentration 1 6
3.0 VIRUSES 6  
3.1 Viruses: Characteristics of viruses, size range, host range, Classification of viruses 1 7
3.2 Structure of viruses: general morphology, nucleic acids, capsid and envelope 1 7
3.3 Culturing bacteriophages in the laboratory, culturing animal viruses: in living animals, in embryonated eggs, in cell cultures 1 7
3.4 Viral multiplication: Multiplication of bacteriophages; lytic cycle, lysogenic cycle 1 7
3.5 multiplication of animal viruses, differences in the multiplication strategies of DNA and RNA viruses 1 7
3.6 Viruses and cancer, DNA and RNA oncogenic viruses 1 7
4.1 General introduction to fermentation technology 1 8
4.1.1 Introduction, scope and historical developments, importance of microbes in industry; microbial biomass, microbial enzymes, microbial metabolites and microbial recombinant products 1 8
4.1.2 Isolation, screening and genetic improvement of industrially important organisms 1 9
4.1.3 Fermentation, Definition, chronological development of fermentation industry, Submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation 1 9
4.1.4 Media for industrial fermentation, major components, water, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, minerals, chelators, oxygen requirement, rheology, foaming and antifoaming agents 1 9
4.1.5 Medium optimization 1 9
4.1.6 Fermenter, functions of a fermenter, Design of a biofermenter, body constructon 1 9
4.1.7 Types of fermenters: Waldhof type, tower type, air lift type, packed tower type , sterilization of the fermenter, aeration, porous sparger, orifice spurger, nozzle sparger, probes 1 9
4.1.8 Recovery of fermentation products, foam separation, precipitation, filtration, centrifugation 1 9
4.2 Industrial microbiology    
4.2.1 Primary metabolism products, production of industrial ethanol as a case study 1 10
4.2.2 Secondary metabolites, bacterial antibiotics production 1 10
4.2.3 Recombinant DNA technologies for microbial processes; Strategies for development of industrial microbial strains with scale up production capacities; metabolic pathway engineering of microbes for production of novel product for industry. 1 10
4.2.4 Microbial enzymes, role in various industrial processes, Bio -transformations, Bioaugmentation with production of vitamin C as a case study, Microencapsulation technologies for immobilization of microbial enzymes. 1 10
4.2.5 Industrial biotechnology for pollution control, treatment of industrial and other wastes, biomass production involving single cell protein 1 10
4.2.6 Bioremediation of soil 1 10
4.2.7 Production of eco -friendly agricultural chemicals, biopesticides, bio -herbicides, bio – fertilizers, bio-fuels, etc. 1 10

Text Books for Reference

 Kun LY. 2006. Microbial Biotechnology. World Scientific.

 Tortora et al. 2008. Microbiology an introduction, Pearson Education

 Michael J Pelczar et al. 2000. TATA McGraw Hill

 PF Stanbury et al. 2008. Elsevier